Yogyakarta is located in south-central Java. It is surrounded by the province of Central Java (Jawa Tengah) and the Indian Ocean in the south. The city is located at 7°47′S 110°22′E / -7.783, 110.367. Located within the Yogyakarta province, Yogyakarta city is known as a center of classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry and puppet shows. It is also famous as a center for Indonesian higher education. It is located in the center of the island of Java, bordered on the south by the Indian Ocean, and to the north by a chain of volcanoes of which meeting Merapi, some 27 kms away, can be seen as a dramatic background to the city skyline.
While, each province of East Java is located between 7° 12′ and 8° 48′ South latitude and stretches from 110° 52′ to 114° 42′ East longitude. The borders of East Java are: the eastern is the Bali Strait; the western is Central Java; the northern is the Java Sea; the southern is the Indian Ocean.Two-thirds of this province is mountainous and hilly with slopes. There are approximately 48 mountains with summits from 284 to 3,676 m. The highest mountain in Java (Mt. Semeru) is located in East Java. The total area includes the area of land measuring 47,922.48km², with a marine area measuring 110,000.00km². The total number of isles and islands recorded is 74. Thus, the total area of East Java as a whole is 157,922,48 km².
Although more than 60% of the 130,000 square km island has been cultivated, Java has a lot of beautiful nature reserves to offer. The most famous reserves are Ujung Kulon National Park, where you may spot one of the sixty surviving Javan Rhinoceroses, the volcanic Gunung Gede Pangrango and Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Parks and Meru Betiri National Park, the last refuge of the almost extinct Javanese Tiger. The climate on West Java is wet through the year. The rainforests, here, are a continuation of those of Sumatra. Heading east, the climate shows a distinct dry and wet season. Typical habitats in Central and especially East Java are monsoon forests and savanna. All over Java volcanoes dominate the landscape. They form the backbone and the most typical feature of Java. Flora and fauna on Java are not as rich as those on Sumatra or Kalimantan. However, you’ll find 18 and 17 endemic bird and mammal species, respectively. The flora and fauna of the volcanic landscapes on Java, although very poor, is unique. Most nature reserves on Java are within easy reach of populated areas. You shouldn’t have any problems in accessing them. Moreover, most reserves are developed for tourists. In most reserves you’ll find simple accommodation and food. For the easy way to the nature reserves of Indonesia go to Java.
As of 2000, the total population of Yogyakarta Special Region amounted to 3.311.812. The majority of residents of the Yogyakarta Special Region are Javanese whose language derives from ancient Sanscrit. However, as Yogyakarta is considered to be “Indonesia’s academic city” due to the numerous centers for higher learning, many of the inhabitants are student who come from all over Indonesia to study.
According to the 2000 census, East Java has 34 million inhabitants, second only to West Java among Indonesian provinces. The inhabitants consist of mostly Javanese. Native minorities include migrants from nearby Madura, and distinct Javanese ethnicities such as the Tengger people in Bromo, the Samin and the Osing people in Banyuwangi. East Java also hosts a significant population of other ethnic groups, such as Chinese, Indians, and Arabs. In addition to the national language, Indonesian, they also speak Javanese. Javanese spoken in the western part of East Java is indistinguishable from the one spoken in nearby Central Java, with its hierarchy of high, medium, and low speeches. But in the eastern cities of Surabaya, Malang, and surrounding areas, the people speak a more egalitarian version of Javanese, with much less regard for hierarchy and a richer vocabulary for vulgarity. While Madurese is spoken by around 15 millions of Madurese, concentrated in Madura Island, Kangean Islands, Masalembu Islands, Eastern part of East Java, and East Java main cities.
The average daily temperature range between 26°C and 28°C with its minimum 18°C and maximum 35°C respectively. Average humidity is 74% with its minimum of 65% and maximum 84% respectively. The Yogyakarta Special Region lies approximately 7 South of the equator line and is bathed in tropical; sunshine along the year. Having a tropic climate the daily atmosphere feels a little bit hot and humid. These are only two seasons along the year, the wet or rainy seasons and dry monsoon. Usually the wet seasons begin at September and lasts about August. Generally there is no rainfalls from may to August and there fore the atmosphere feels hot and humid on the day and cool in the night and early morning. The monthly rain falling Yogyakarta varies between 3mm and 496mm in which those above 300mm take place during the month of January up to April. The heaviest rainfall usually occurs in February while the lowest commonly happens between May and October Average annually rainfall is about 1,900mm.
East Java, like the other parts of the Indonesian archipelago, has the same climate: a tropical climate with two famous seasons: rainy season (October-April) and dry seasons (May – September). The average temperature is between 20°C – 30°C(about 75-95°F). It is sunny in East Java: 70% – 80% of the year in the northern area, 60% – 70% in the central area and about 60% of the year in the mountains. According to the records from the Department of Meteorology, the air temperature ranges from 19.8°C – 36.0°C. The lowest temperature takes place in July whereas the highest temperature takes place in November. Based on the Schmidt and Ferguson’s classification system, most of the regions in East Java posses a D-type climate.
How to get there
Yogyakarta is one of the popular tourist destinations in Indonesia and attracts travelers from all across the globe. The quickest and comfortable way to get to Yogyakarta is by air and flights connect all the important cities of the Indonesia and also important cities of the world. The Adisucipto International Airport in Yogyakarta has flights to all the important cities of Indonesia and to Singapore and Kalimantan. The travelers can get to Yogyakarta by bus with the major bus terminal is located 4 km from the center. The bus service provides regular connection to all the important parts of the island including Jakarta, Surabaya and Badung. The other option to get to Yogyakarta is by train that offers a time to witness the beautiful landscape. The station in Yogyakarta is called the Tugu Station and connects the important cities.
Connected with the rest of Java by good motor roads and train services, there are also air services between Surabaya and other major cities in the country including Bali which is only half an hour’s flight a way. It is also easily accessible by road and regular ferry from Bali and Java.
Best time to travel
Just like any of the South East Asian country, it’s warm and wet in Yogyakarta. Indonesia is basically warm and humid country. In Kaliurang, the temperature is cooler. Basically there are only two seasons, rainy and dry. During the dry season, there’ll still be rainy days, just less. Dry season ranges from April to October while the wet season is November to March. This explains that the best time to travel to Yogyakarta and East Java is during the dry season which is from April to October. The area has been known to experience horrifying tropical storms, so visitors should remain updated about current weather. February is the rainiest month.